The establishment of a new forest stand is a primary focus in sustainable forestry. In oak and northern hardwood stands such as those found in our region, regeneration occurs as a natural process when seeds that drop or are dispersed by the wind or animals develop into seedlings. Stump sprouts and root suckers also contribute to natural regeneration. Most Pennsylvania tree species require some threshold size and number of seedlings before the overstory is harvested to ensure the survival of an adequate number of seedlings to develop into a new stand. Our role is to manipulate stand conditions to favor the establishment of desirable regeneration sufficient to become a new forest stand.